A few years after Erik?s birth her mother took him to a local jewish pediatrician Dr. Theodor Homburger for a treatment of minor illness. His mother and the pediatrician eventually fell in love. He quickly developed a sense that something was wrong his mother and father were Jewish his own physical appearance was clearly Scandinavian. later on he found the truth about his heritage his identity crisis was worsened. Rejecting his stepfather?s plea to become physician. He went to Europe and enrolled in art school and eager to learn about culture and history. He returned home at theBiography of Erik Erikson age of 25 prepared to settle down and teach art for a living. Erikson was asked by his former high school friend Peter Blos to join him as a teacher in Experimental Nursery school in Vienna where he met Anna Freud and her famous father Sigmund Freud. Anna Freud was trying to convert psychoanalytic interest in childhood experiences of adult. Erikson shared her pioneering interest and was eventually trained by her as a child analyst. Erikson was still unsure to earn his living a psychoanalyst because still wanted to paint and draw. However he began to see a connection between psychoanalysis and art. He observed that children?s dream and play involve important visual images that only later are translated into words in therapy. Concepts and Principles Erikson?s position represents a systematic extension of Freud?s view of the role of ego in personality functioning. Erikson is a Freudian ego-psychologist. Erikson proposed that ego often operates independently of id emotions and motivation. Ego functions to help individual adapt to challenges presented by the surrounding. Ego Psychology Emphasized the integration of biological and psychosocial forces in determination of personality functioning. Epigenetic Principle The idea that human development is governed by a sequence of stages that depend on genetic or hereditary factors This principle says that we develop through a predetermined unfolding of our personalities in eight stages. Our progress through each stage is in part determined by our success or lack of success crisis? in all the previous stages. Crisis defined as the crucial period in every stage. Virtue inherent strength or active quality? human qualities or strength emerge from successful resolution of crisis. Psychosocial Development: Stages of Ego Development Stage Basic Conflict Virtue Important Events Outcome Infancy (birth to 18 months) Trust vs. Mistrust HOPE Feeding Children develop a sense of trust when caregivers provide reliability care and affection. A lack of this will lead to mistrust. Early Childhood (2 to 3 years) Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt WILL Toilet Training Children need to develop a sense of personal control over physical skills and a sense of independence. Success leads to feelings of autonomy failure results in feelings of shame and doubt. Preschool/Play Age (3 to 5 years) Initiative vs. Guilt PURPOSE Exploration Children need to begin asserting control and power over the environment. Success in this stage leads to a sense of purpose. Children who try to exert too much power experience disapproval resulting in a sense of guilt. School Age (6 to 11 years) Industry vs. Inferiority COMPETENCE School Children need to cope with new social and academic demands. Success leads to a sense of competence while failure results in feelings of inferiority. Adolescence (12 to 18 years) Identity vs. Role Confusion FIDELITY Social Relationships Teens need to develop a sense of self and personal identity. Success leads to an ability to stay true to yourself while failure leads to role confusion and a weak sense of self. Young Adulthood (19 to 40 years) Intimacy vs. Isolation LOVE Relationships Young adults need to form intimate loving relationships with other people. Success leads to strong relationships while failure results in loneliness and isolation. Middle Adulthood (40 to 65 years) Generativity vs. Stagnation CARE Work and Parenthood Adults need to create or nurture things that will outlast them often by having children or creating a positive change that benefits other people. Success leads to feelings of usefulness and accomplishment while failure results in shallow involvement in the world. Maturity(65 to death) Ego Integrity vs. Despair WISDOM Reflection on Life Older adults need to look back on life and feel a sense of fulfillment. Success at this stage leads to feelings of wisdom while failure results in regret bitterness and despair. Strengths and Weaknesses of Erik Erikson?s Theory Strengths Comprehensiveness It addresses itself to wide variety of phenomenon both normal and abnormal and seeks to biological social cultural and historical factors. Heuristic Value Within Psychology Erikson?s work has contributed directly to lifespan psychology and the development of adult psychology. Applied Value Erikson?s work has practical impact in the area of child psychology and psychiatry counseling education and social work. Weaknesses Male Bias Erik Erikson articulated psychosocial stage describes the life cycle hallmarks of white western society and may not apply well to other cultures or even to our own today/present time. Erikson?s positive outcome (such as autonomy initiative industry) virtues (such as will purpose and competence) are frequently seen as characteristics of healthy male development. And his negative ones (doubt guilt and inferiority) are seen as reflecting unhealthy female development. Gilligan?s studies of girl and women?s development suggest different positive values emerge in healthy development. Connection responsibility and care replace autonomy mastery and power. Precision and Testability Erikson?s theory fails to meet the criterion of precision and testability. He defined the concept of ego to sustain sameness and continuity in the face of changing fate. Evidently the concept is extremely complex and does not readily precise measurement. Therapy/Application of Erik Erikson?s Theory Research Erikson believed that social and historical factors affect the formation of ego identity which in turn affects the nature of the personality. One such example of the work of social factors in personality development is the women?s movement. Studies have found that most adolescent women today include a career orientation as part of their ego identity. Research in the area of identity crisis show that this stage may begin around 12 and be resolved by the time a person is 18. However for some people identity may not occur until as late as age 24. Erikson believed that people in the maturity and old age stage of psychosocial development spend time recalling and examining their life accepting or regretting past choices. However one study showed no significant differences between younger adults compared to older adults in reported frequency of life reflections. However younger people engaged in reflection to gain self-insight and find solutions to current problems while older people used reflection of their past to evaluate their lives Play Therapy Erikson used play therapy to conduct research on his theory focusing on what he called play construction. In his studies boys and girls constructed a scene for an imaginary movie using dolls toy animals automobiles and wooden blocks. Girls tended to build low enclosures while boys focused on exteriors action and height. Based on biological differences according to Erikson; girls build low enclosures in which people are walled in and boys would build towers. Research today still persists that traditional gender stereotyping between girls and boys exists. Girls typically play with dolls jewelry and toy kitchen implements while boys play with trucks soldiers and guns. Our greatest weakness lies in giving up. The most certain way to succeed is always to try just one more time. And anyone who has never made a mistake has never tried anything new?” the chorus of cynics? who insist we cannot do this.? Those who deny the possibility of hope in a nation in which hope is never vain: But in the unlikely story that is America there has never been anything false about hope.? A number of domestic evidentias are then mentioned: the struggle of the Spartanburg textile worker the plight of the Las Vegas dishwasher the hopes of the little girl who goes to a crumbling school in Dillon and the dreams of the boy who learns on the streets of LA. On this rugged foundation that befits the nature of the American people Barack Obama raises his slogan like a standard and with the choral approval of his audience he recites the phrase no fewer than nine times before closing the speech with the final words: yes we can.? Once the phrase was firmly coined Obama did not actually utter it even once in his next speech a long and closely argued address. This was A More Perfect Union? which Obama gave on March 182008 in Philadelphia the city which for Americans is something like Cadiz is for us [Spain?s first democratic constitution was proclaimed in 1812 at Cadiz] for Philadelphia was where the Constitution was enacted on September 171787 twenty-five years before Spain?s La Pepa. The first sentence of its preamble gives Obama?s speech its title and expresses one of the core ideas of his whole campaign ?the union of all Americans? but in particular it opens with an emphatic We? echoing Yes we can:? We the People of the United States in Order to form a more perfect union? do ordain and establish this Constitution of the United States of America.? Obama again gives the lie to the naysayers who dismiss his candidature as a mere exercise in affirmative action? but he devotes the lion?s share of the address to a harsh recriminatio directed against his former pastor the Reverend Jeremiah Wright whose radical invective against the United States as his reaction to the survival of racial discrimination had compromised Obama?s electoral outlook. The candidate makes use of this sensitive juncture to assert that for him too amicus Plato sed magis amica veritas [Plato is my friend but truth is the greater friend]. He publicly professes his religious faith and at the same time evinces an outright rejection of extremism always confident that America can change? and that only if we do as the Scriptures would have us do ?be brothers to our brothers? Americans will bring truth to those words of the Constitution as to a more perfect union.? To illustrate his argument nothing could be better than a fresh evidentia: the homely heroism of Ashley Baia a 23-year-old woman volunteer working for the Obama campaign in Florence South Carolina. Obama acknowledges having already told this anecdote at an event commemorating Martin Luther King at the Baptist church of Ebenezer King?s own parish in Atlanta. This display of religious faith-which would be unthinkable in a European politician for instance-comes to the fore in the next piece I propose to examine: Obama?s talk given on Father?s Day June 152008 at the Apostolic Church of God in Chicago. As though he himself were in holy orders Obama begins his speech with a quotation from the Sermon on the Mount as told by St Matthew. He follows this again with a mention of Martin Luther King and then holds himself out as a statesman and father advocating the education of his children as a responsibility not only of government officials but also of their own parents. He ends the address by characterizing his words as a prayer or call which he hopes will come true for his country in the years ahead.? A specific chiefly economic theme runs through the immediately subsequent speech delivered by Obama at Kettering University in Flint Michigan on June 16. The title tells the story: Renewing American Competitiveness.? This was not an occasion for the emotive force of a political harangue but the candidate nonetheless refers to the Founding Fathers who having won independence created a common market by fusing the economies of the first 13 states. He follows this up with a with a fierce attack on the neoliberal militaristic and ultraconservative politics of George W. Bush and the Republican Party. In stark opposition to their approach he proposes as pillars of an economy that is to become more competitive in the globalized world a reinvigorated school system innovative energy strategies a more efficient health system and new investment in fundamental research and infrastructure. His closing words however point back to the central theme of his campaign: Because when Americans come together there is no destiny too difficult or too distant for us to reach.? Ich bin ein Berliner? The second-to-last speech that Barack Obama gave in the year in which he won the presidency was also tightly focused on a specific subject but for that very reason ?and in particular because of its venue? it brings to mind another piece of oratory that has its place among the most memorable ever spoken by a President of the United States in the twentieth century. Obama only revealed his foreign policy blueprint on the occasion of his visit to Berlin on July 24 2008. Under the title A World That Stands as One? he sets out his understanding of cultural diversity national interests nations and the attitudes of all the world?s peoples. Facing a different audience-not his usual hearers American electors-he presents himself as a citizen of the United States and fellow citizen of the world. He refers to the responsibility that attaches to global citizenship and acknowledges that the United States? closest ally is still Europe placing on record his hope that Europe will remain united. In our continent he says it is likewise meaningful to invoke that yearning for a more perfect union? in the words of the preamble to the American Constitution which Obama mentions here in Berlin. In a Berlin riven by the Wall fraught with the intolerable tension of the Cold War and the partition of Germany John Fitzgerald Kennedy had roused his German hearers when on June 111963 he opened his speech delivered from the steps of the Rathaus Schoneberg with a seeming paradox spoken in German: Ich bin ein Berliner? (nowhere in the speech was Kennedy to utter the English phrase I am a Berliner?). The effect of these words was electrifying: the people of Berlin besieged and alone in a redoubt of Western democracy behind the Iron Curtain ?an expression popularized by another great modern orator Winston Churchill? enthusiastically identified with the president of a power which only 18 years before had driven the Nazi regime to defeat. The audience gladly accepted Kennedy?s closing argument in the manner of an epiphonema: All free men wherever they may live are citizens of Berlin. Therefore as a free man I proudly say these words: Ich bin ein Berliner.? This belated review of a small selection from the oratorical corpus of Barack Hussein Obama brilliantly crowned by his Victory Speech of November 42008 in Chicago?s Grant Park reveals among other rhetorical features like those discussed earlier a consistent theme developed over the course of the entire process in response to the emerging circumstances of the campaign and the venues of Obama?s rallies in conjunction with an overarching strategy which scholars of Baroque literature have often characterized as the coming together of two movements: first the dissemination of arguments; secondly a complementary gathering of arguments. This is precisely the characteristic tenor of this final oration the Victory Speech. The President Elect opens with an affirmation of the continuing force of the dream of our Founders? and other great men such as Lincoln Roosevelt and Martin Luther King a preacher from Atlanta.? Those doubting the dream have finally been put right by American votes. To flesh out this concept of electoral vindication Obama?s logographer again resorts to the figure of anaphora four times repeating the same clause: It?s the answer?? The answer is change still the true genius of America.? The winning candidate via the figure of apostrophe then directly addresses his hearers- whether listening to him in Grant Park itself or by the medium of electromagnetic waves-as the you? that has made all this possible. This apostrophe does not disclose a recriminatio like that which even on this joyous occasion Obama has cast in the direction of the cynics but a veritable encomium or panegyric of those who have raised him to office with their donations their supportive looks and applause and their votes which are decisive for Obama to take on challenges as vast as two wars a planet in peril the worst financial crisis in a century.? To personify the unanimous people as an individual he proposes a new evidentia Ann Nixon Cooper who that afternoon had stood in line to vote 106 years of life behind her. The cold shower of reality nonetheless encourages Obama to rebuild the strong bonds of alliance between President and people invoked by yes we can? the slogan which now looking forward takes on the shape of a rhetorical variatio: I promise you we as a people will get there.? YouTube provides a record of how Obama?s promise was met by the audience?s chorus of yes we can.? This was precisely the closing phrase of the entire campaign at the very moment at which the candidate was invested with the charisma of victory. His speech was again a masterpiece of that effective communicative technology that is none other than ancient rhetoric as revived in the Internet Galaxy. Today Obama?s speechwriters continue to exploit all the resources of the art of rhetoric including the play on words that contrasts the interests of Wall Street-the inner sanctuary of capitalism-with those of Main Street which stands for American towns and small cities” the emblem of the common citizenry.”””
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