School of Education Module Assessment Feedback FormModule name: Understanding learning Family name: IBRAHIM Forename: Karen Marking Tutor: Linda Ellison Spot Mark:* 38CRITERIA SUB-CRITERIA Organisation As usual, the introduction should explain the structure and purpose of the assignment (as well as the context) ? it doesn?t. Section 1 is very much over-length at 1000 words and is too descriptive and detailed. Appendix 1 is not needed but the plans for these lessons should be included in the appendix. Section 2 is far too brief (158 words) and does not provide a clearly argued rationale for the specific teaching and learning activities as described. Section 3 is an appropriate length and has some thoughtful material but reads rather like a ?stream of consciousness? ? it needs clearer organisation and signposting for the reader.Section 1 does not delineate the sequence of lessons sufficiently clearly. Indeed, it is not at all clear that it is a sequence. In the rationale section, you need to use the literature to explain why you made your planning choices, referring to some of the themes in the module ? you don?t seem to be following the instructions in Moodle. Section 3 is not sufficiently linked to literature and its structure is unclear; it is quite descriptive and detailed, as opposed to focusing on the principles and theories related to differentiation, group work etc.StructureFocus and relevance Knowledge and understandingThe literature used is very much too narrow. It is not possible to put a definite figure on this but anything below 15 good sources would suggest inadequacy. You give too much practical detail but not enough critical analysis of, and reflection on, the literature.Knowledge of topic Breadth of understanding Argumentation Depth of treatment Analysis Reflection Criticality Application Although there is a lot about the practice, it is badly organised and too detailed. Your ideas need to be grounded in the literature. The literature should be used extensively to underpin your rationale and your reflections on practice (parts 2 and 3). Links to professional practice Proposals well grounded Constraints considered Creativity and originality Presentation, referencing and language The (parallel) main sub headings should all be the same style and font. The font changes in the essay in general.Author initials should not be given in the text. Page needed for direct quotes; give the year after an author. Single quote marks are used unless it is a quote inside a quote (or it is an indented quote where none are used). Once again, the reference list is incomplete. It is also out of order and contains many errors (see annotations). It is hard to understand how you are making so many errors of referencing, given my comments on Module 1.Avoid contractions. Presentation conventionsReferencing styleClarity of expression General Comments There is some useful material in this assignment. However there are also many weaknesses. I?m not judging your lesson planning but the lessons do seem over-complicated for the age group.A revised essay need to: 1. have a shorter, less descriptive part 1; 2. have a much longer part 2, underpinned by literature; 3. have a better organised and signposted part 3 with links to literature; 4. follow referencing conventions.Please bear in mind that you are supposed to spend 150 hours on a module. Anything less leaves you with a narrower understanding and no time to do things as required. The shortcomings here are more to do with time than ability.*Spot Mark: Full marking criteria can be found in Appendix 1 of the Assessment HandbookPlease note that the mark indicated above is conditional on approval at the Examinations Board. In addition the mark is a comment on the academic standard of work only ? any penalties for late submission of coursework are not included here. The comment section incorporates comments from the second marker where appropriate.COVER SHEET TO BE SUBMITTED WITH ASSIGNMENTSNAME Karen Ibrahim STUDENT ID 4148484 MODULE NO 3 DATE SUBMITTED 30th April 2014By submitting this form electronically, you are agreeing to all the following statements.I have stayed within length specifications. The number of words (excluding references and appendices) is ??????3125??? I have included a Title page, which contains the necessary information, including my name and student number, the name of my course, the title of the assignment, module title and tutor ? Where appropriate, I have included a Contents page ? I have divided the work into sections with headings ? The references in the body of text follow academic conventions ? The references list is complete and follows academic conventions ? I have proof-read the work carefully ? I have made use of the tutorial support available to me ? My supervising tutor has approved the title of my work ? I give permission for this assignment to be used for training purposes by my tutor, provided it has first been made anonymous I have read the School?s information on plagiarism and this piece of work conforms to those requirements ? In submitting this assignment I understand that my work may be put through Turnitin plagiarism software ?Critical Evaluation of Science Year 1 Lesson sequenceKaren IbrahimTable of ContentsIntroduction???????????????????????????????????4 Overview of Lesson Sequence?????????????????????????.4,5,6 Rationale of Lesson Sequence 7 Critical Evaluation of the Lesson Sequence???????????????????????????????..7,8,9,10,11 Conclusion??????????????????????????????????.. 12References????????????????????????????????????.Appendix?????????????????????????????????????Introduction For the purposes of this assignment I plan to teach lessons on basic (year 1) science where the children learn about the characteristics and uses of a range of common materials of which they are familiar and unfamiliar with .Overview of Lesson Sequence ? Elementary 5-6 year old ESL Learners. ? Aims and Objectives Children will be exposed to a selection of objects with different traits which they will be able to investigate themselves using their senses and their previous knowledge. The investigations will serve to identify but also classify the objects as the children find them, this classification will then become a label which they should later be able to use to describe other objects displaying similar properties. ? Subject content This is a science based lesson but has language arts integrated. ? Teaching approaches I plan to use experimental activity based methods for this discovery phase of the lesson which should help build on and introduce the new descriptive vocabulary which they can use again. Once the children are familiar with using and identifying the materials I will begin a series of experiments for comparing the material properties, and have the children suggest best existing, and hopefully new uses for them.Children will be expected to find similar objects in their immediate environment and group discussion will play a large role in deciding whether an object displays or does not display a certain characteristic. There may be scope for scaffolding the children towards deeper methods of discovery and alternative possibilities of classification explored and discussed. For example a pineapple is hard and spiky on the outside but could a slice be classified in the same way? Also I hope to demonstrate the effects of the elements on the properties of objects, like for example, freezing on water and heat on chocolate, and demonstrate how some objects can have many or changing characteristics.The sequence of lessons is designed so that the children are first introduced to the materials in a relaxed style. They are encouraged to handle and touch, smell and squeeze the variety of materials and become familiar with them and their defining properties. It is natural that, as this discovery unfolds, the children will express their findings in group discussion. Their existing knowledge can be displayed and assessed here, and their vocabulary noted and shared. This is the perfect opportunity to introduce new descriptive vocabulary and its meaning as an alternative label for the materials. As a lot of the materials are familiar in some sense to the children, having them carry out this section in their groups is a wonderful opportunity for discussion with their peer cohorts. It has the potential to be used as a successful brain storming session where as many descriptive words are generated as possible and everyone can have a turn. Ideas could then be shared with the class. By allowing the children to familiarize themselves with their properties on a basic sensory level, the foundations for the following experiments and assessments is effectively laid. The progression from this is to test their knowledge of the materials and others of similar description ?Once new content is introduced it should be immediately followed by guided practice to allow pupils to practice what they have learned and to allow teachers to check how well the pupils have understood the lesson?, (Muijs & Reynolds, 2005 p. ??). There is a good opportunity for assessment here in that a simple blindfold game would be sufficient to assess whether they have remembered the new vocabulary pooled from the groups, and whether they have remembered the meaning of the descriptive words. It is also a chance to see if they can label the new objects with the property words as this goes to the heart of their understanding of the principle of the property outside of the original object, which is the overall objective of the lessons.The next stage of the lessons focuses on allowing the children to practically demonstrate their knowledge of materials and their properties. Instead of directly instructing the children to demonstrate the property I could take this chance to ask a series of questions designed to elicit a specific response that tests understanding. For example, I could ask, is it rough? The child should attempt to handle the objects, just like if I asked does it smell. They should sniff it. Leading the interactive lesson with questioning allows them to lead the review of the topic. ?The lesson should start with a review of what was learned previously, interaction and questioning are crucial as they are the best way of checking pupils retention of material taught earlier? (Muijs, & Reynolds, 2005 p. ??). Planning will be important for this stage as though a taught concept is being assessed, a new concept should, if the lesson is designed correctly, reveal itself. Students should by now have reached a stage where they can sort unknown materials by characteristics. Again with effective use of group work the results of a sorting exercise should reveal that different groups have sorted the same object into different property boxes. After some explorative discussion and a little explaining it should be clear that one material can have many properties and should be described using as many as possible.The final stage of the lesson sequence involves testing materials for properties and selecting a best purpose for their use. This should give students a chance to incorporate their previous knowledge into the lesson and relate it to the subject. Children should be encouraged to draw on past experiences of learning, for example they may have never thought about it before but most children will be aware that objects like umbrellas, and the roof of their house should be water proof. Planning and preparation are again important because slate and an umbrella should be part of the resources used for the lesson. Particularly in the case of the umbrella the children are aware of it main function which is its defining property, a practical demonstration could link the two in the pupils? minds. Magnetism can also be discussed here as it has been introduced briefly before and can now be expanded upon as a property. Children will recall the go fish lesson (Appendix 1) and I can explain why the fishing rods were able to catch the fish, but not their pencils. This would be an appropriate time to allow the children to use inductive reasoning (Brown et. al, 2009) by designing simple experiments that enables them to arrive at a conclusion by independent investigation. Lead the reader on to the next sectionRationale for Lesson Sequence I have researched the rationale for my lesson sequence and have added some theories here. How is this section structured? Research Before educators can embark on designing an effective hands-on science programme for young children, it?s important to know a bit about how a child?s brain works. The brain is a pattern-seeking machine, and science is the quest to recognise and classify naturally occurring patterns. Jensen (year), author of Teaching with the Brain in Mind, says, ?Using the pattern-detecting and pattern-making areas of the brain is critical to proper development? (p. 96). So? Link this to your lesson! In early childhood it is equally important that science activities be hands-on, child-driven, authentic, and active. Developmentally, young children learn and understand best from what they can see, touch, feel, and manipulate. Providing safe, readily available materials that children can experiment with is one of the most important steps towards effective hands-on science investigations. Effective educators use a child?s own natural curiosity and questions to fuel science investigations I don?t think you have finished writing this section.Section 3: Critical evaluation of the lesson sequence: After teaching the sequence I found that it was too long and many elements could have been grouped together for better progression. In places I often felt as though the class was being deliberately held back as they would have been able to advance through the activities and concepts faster than the intended pace of the sequence. Also allowing them to proceed to the next task and alter the lesson accordingly was not possible as the practical nature of the lessons often meant that the resources were not available in the class as the children?s speed of learning had not been planned for in advance. There were also times where class discipline was being risked by prolonging the discussion of a certain topic, or even to allow all the children to take their turn. This has links to the activities not being suitably spread over the lesson, or lesson sequence or the lesson not being appropriately differentiated. This is discussed in more detail below. A lot of worksheet style recording and drawing takes place which could have been substituted or differentiated with other practical activities like experiments and group projects. Also much of the learning was demonstrated in writing rather than through other media. There could have been scope for greater discussion and physical investigation. The areas of the sequence which did include experiment based elements seemed to veer away from the core concept for the sake of practicality and class manageability. For instance, the later stages of the sequence involve testing the materials to uncover their properties and then, based on this, deciding on a best use for them. The lessons up to this point had been about classifying metals, rock, rubber and wood, as well as paper and fabrics. However the test for physical characteristics was only planned for fabrics and papers, excluding the classification of the other materials, which I feel leaves the lesson incomplete. Also as waterproof was discussed as part of the earlier properties of materials then it should have been a part of the testing materials lesson. This also reflects the earlier point about the sequence being too long, and concepts drawn out rather than appropriately grouped together. It also represents the lack of choice of activity in the sequence, which allowed for basically no differentiation during activities. All children watched or took part in the same activity at the same time. Though there was an element of differentiation by outcome during the group discussions in that more able children ultimately came up with a wider variety of descriptive vocabulary, and suggested and demonstrated more informed choices for best use, there could have been a much greater role for differentiation in the activities designed and the groups formed.There are many strengths and weaknesses within this lesson sequence and the changes proposed as the lessons progressed. The sequence was intended to allow for multiple opportunities for discovery based learning. The children would be involved in several play based activities that allowed them to pace and lead their own learning as well as that of their peers. My role in the lessons would be as a guide and helpful instructor only and I would deliberately design lessons where the discussions are student lead. ?It is the student who ultimately establishes the continuity between existing knowledge, concepts, skills, ways of working, teaching and learning styles in their own mind, even though we might be able to facilitate that process of building links? (Cohen, Manion and Morrison, 2000). As a facilitator of their own learning students would then assist and scaffold each other?s learning through interaction, consideration and discussion in their groups, ?developing pupils ability to articulate and communicate their ideas orally is much more likely to be achieved through practice, feedback and critiquing others? (Kyriacou, 2007). The predominant advantage of this style of lesson sequence is the numerous opportunities the children have for collaborative working in their groups, ?group or pair work techniques where the students are sharing and thereby producing better, or richer work than they might have done on their own include brainstorming, prediction, completing sentences, planning different tasks for the same activity?, (Sassoon, 2009). The open ended nature of the science topic also lends itself to easy group formation, based either on equivalent or mixed ability. An open-ended activity allows students to work at their own pace and also allows for a variety of responses. A lesson objective can be met using the input or attention of a wide variety of different learning levels. When introducing the principles of this science concept to the class there is no need to break the class up into groups although doing so would have had advantages in terms of organisation of the lesson. The objective of the task, to introduce a new concept, can easily be met by all students in the class regardless of their ability level or interest. For example all children can take part in the identification stage of the sequence; here there is no right or wrong answer and the students are simply exploring and discussing the materials. In contrast, application of this new concept would have been best suited to groups where students of equal level can work together and get help from the teacher as needed. For example, once the descriptive vocabulary has been introduced there should be an opportunity designed for the higher ability students to apply their new words in a practical exercise. This will not be true of the less able students who will need to demonstrate their knowledge differently. This is where within-class grouping comes into practice and so too differentiation.The main areas for development were introducing aspects of differentiation into the sequence from the outset, or at least progressively as the lessons occurred and as gaps in the learning became apparent. Planning would play an important role here too as different differentiation strategies should be planned to suit the learner and their area of difficulty. Because the lesson is topical in nature and most of the learning in the sequence is practical and hands on (stressing, testing the materials) the choice of activity is of great importance, ?will the activities selected meet the needs of this particular group of pupils, taking account of their abilities, interests and motivation and the way they are likely to respond to these activities?? (Kyriacou, 2007 p. ??). Hence, when writing lesson plans, extra time should be taken to come up with a method of differentiation in order to meet the needs of all of students. Providing advanced opportunities for some students while at the same time coming up with a simple instruction to help the lesser ability students during the same lesson will be sufficient to meet each student?s ability level. Differentiating instruction in topic subjects such as science can be difficult. As it was originally designed, all students ultimately end up being part of the same activity in this lesson sequence, ?as such, all activities should deliver the appropriate intellectual experience for learning on all levels to occur? (Kyriacou, 2007). In order to meet the needs of each student during these lessons, planning again comes into play as rich learning environments that include visual displays, different activities for all students to complete, and projects that reinforce the lessons concept should be provided. Utilising multi-ability groupings would also be helpful here as the more advanced students will be able to help or scaffold the less able students. In designing, developing and providing the necessary scaffolding, the learning activities should be customised to meet the short term needs of the students, even if the more knowledgeable other (ref) is a more able child in the group, the teacher needs to be even more vigilant and monitor the progress of the discussions and activities going on. This can be achieved by modifying instruction based on continuous ongoing assessment of student skills and readiness during an activity or sequence of activities, (Tomlinson, 1999). The activities themselves are fun and play based and altering them would be relatively easy given that I am already familiar with the learning styles of the different abilities of the children in the class. For example the lesson on choosing materials for a purpose is laid out so that children imagine ways of using the materials given a specified set of conditions. However if the lesson prior to this (properties of materials) were modified so that the children each carried out a different test task on the materials so they could see the property in action it would better prepare them for the following lesson in the sequence. This is particularly relevant in ESL schools such as this one because the children have often not been exposed to either the materials, or their actions before . Their age must also be considered as this sequence is ideally designed for a year 1 child so?. Paramount though to this change is incorporating differentiation into the activity as the less able children will need to see most of the properties demonstrated before they can internalise the concept fully. Also able students should be given as many ways as possible to be challenged to demonstrate their skills and learning, which mixing practical and written elements can provide. These opportunities would also benefit lesser ability students as the students at each table have a chance during open discussion to share their thoughts, findings and classifications. By allowing the children to see the materials at work and have them testing them themselves the sequence better prepares them for choosing materials for a purpose. If the children can relate the materials to functions they already serve, e.g. an umbrella is waterproof, then they will more likely be more successful at coming up with new ideas for the same materials. Again by using scaffolding of student action with experience, enhancing purpose, meaning, experience and engagement, and by supporting insightful questioning of already existing knowledge, action and experience the process of mediation can further enhance learning (Sassoon, 2009).Conclusion: The lack of differentiation in the original lesson hindered some of the children?s progress through the practical elements of the sequence. Because of the children?s unforeseen progression through the activities there were no extension activities planned and the practical classes sometimes ended up being cut short. Therefore better planning in the design of the sequence and the activities therein would have contributed to better progression across the sequence. Also, more differentiation could have been used to deepen the investigation and therefore understanding of the materials and their properties, the participation and interest of the students could also have benefitted from this.References 😕 Brown, A. Orlich, D. Harder, R. Callahan, R. and Trevisan, M. (2009) Teaching strategies: a guide to effective instruction, city: Cengage learning. ? Tomlinson, C. A. (1999) The differentiated classroom: responding to the needs of all learners, city: ASCD. ? Cohen, Manion and Morrison (2000), Research methods in education, 3rd edition, New York: Croom Helm. ? Kyriacou, C. (2007) Essential teaching skills, 3rd edition, Cheltenham: Nelson Thornes. ? Muijs, D. and Reynolds, D. (2005) Effective teaching, evidence and practice. London: Sage. ? Sassoon, D. (2009) Strategies for differentiating instruction, Adapting reading activities for Mixed ability classes what is this?Lesson Plan Karen Ibrahim Context of Lesson Date: 25/4/2014 Time: 08:00-08:30 Duration: 30 minutes Subject: Literacy (phonics) Group: GRADE 1 No. of Students: 23 Absent:Prior Learning: Sounds and words for a-u, sounds and words for v, w and x taught this week.Lesson Objectives: To reinforce the sounds and words for v, w and x. To practice these sounds through words, and discuss these words. To differentiate between the 3 new sounds. To sort the pictures and words into the correct sound column. Learning Outcomes: To be able to recognise the sounds v, w and x. To be able to identify and talk about the pictures associated with these sounds. To be able to sort the pictures and words into the correct sound column. Links to the National Curriculum: Links to ICT, literacy, numeracy: First, middle and last are maths concepts touched on in the sorting game. Resources: Wall of words, sound flashcards, picture flashcards, word flashcards, fishing rods, magnetic fish, sound boxes. Advanced Preparation: Made sound boxes, and flashcards, made the fish and attached magnets, made fishing rods using string, drew wall of words. Differentiation: MA: be able to choose the correct word flashcard based on the picture and sound. A: be able to choose the correct picture based on the sound. Be able to locate the picture in the correct column. LA: be able to sort sounds from a selection of sounds and sort them into their correct boxes.Make sure to explain that everyone will get a turn at the fishing game!Questions/Vocabulary: Make sure to include some trick cards amongst the groups to see if they can spot it. Time: 08:0008:0508:1008:25Teaching: Greet students, sing national anthem, and take register.Explain what we will be doing and give the children a bunch of cards each. I do a quick revision of the sounds for the week on their posters. I point to the wall of words and I ask the children to say the sounds for me. I ask everyone to turn over their cards to see what they got. I point to the v column and ask anyone with a v picture or a v word to come up and make a line. I ask the first child to hold up their picture/word and show the class then I ask them what it is, and where it should go. I ask them to stick it into the correct column. Then instead of calling the next in line at random I ask if the person with the matcher card can go next. They should be able to identify themselves. When the column is full I ask for all w children to come up and after that, the x group. The TA works separately with the LA group, she revises the sounds and pictures on the poster with them, then shows them a fish with each letter on his back, they have to orally name the sound, and point to the correct poster. Then they point to the correct box. It?s ok for them to catch any fish/sound as long as they put him in the right box.If there is time left over before reading, i?ll ask the children to think of new v, w, and x words and come up to write them on the wall. For A/LA children they can draw a picture to represent the word they?ve thought of (if they need to). Learning: Students settle down, and call out their attendance.Children listen to their instructions as they receive the cards.They say the sounds and words aloud together.They turn over their cards and should recognise the word/picture immediately and begin mentally sorting it. Children with v pictures and words should identify themselves and come up. They can talk about their card for the class before sticking it in the correct column.The child with the matching card should also be able to identify themselves and put the pair back together on the board. When the column is complete the w group should be able to tell that they will be next, and get ready to come up.Children working in the LA group should now recognise this weeks sounds. Once they recognise the sounds they should be able to tell them apart. Because the fishing activity has the potential to be difficult, they can catch any sound and sort it once it?s caught. If they are progressing well they can try to catch me a specific sound.Children think of their own words and put up their hands to answer. A child can then come up and write the word on the wall in the correct column. Assessment:Do they children know the sounds well?Do they recognise their words and pictures immediately? And do they know which sound they belong to? Can they talk a little about the word and explain it to the class?Does the child with the matching card realise they are the other half? When I say what sound is next do the children with w words know that I mean them? W is next on the wall but can they make the link?Can they sort the sounds they catch? Can they spot a specific sound and catch it? Do they realise the trick sound does not belong in any of the boxes?Can they think of new words? Plenary: We quickly tidy up and get out our readers from our pink chairs. Appendix 1: Lesson Plan showing the childrens prior exposure to magnetic p:
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