NATURE AND OBJECTIVESThis course examines how gender, sexuality, and the social institutions and patterns connected with these operated in ancient Greece and Rome. With regard to gender and sexuality, the ancient world differs dramatically in its definitions, attitudes, and outlooks from our own, yet at the same time it is also the forerunner and a ?distant mirror? to our own culture and time. In this world we can both discern some of our own beliefs, values, and habits of thought, and at the same time witness some of our most treasured ideas and assumptions being contradicted. We will examine such things as gender roles and forms of sexual behavior, and also concepts and stereotypes of gender and sexuality in antiquity, how the Greeks and Romans thought about and portrayed these, and how ? especially with the rise of Christianity in late antiquity ? particular issues regarding marriage and virginity entered into the inheritance of Western Civilization. Essential to the course is the concept of the social construction of gender and sexuality, i.e., that these complex phenomena are not only, merely, or even mainly biological, but rather cultural in nature. Different societies and eras understand, define, organize, deploy, and exploit gender and sexuality in radically different ways. At the same time, it would appear obvious that biology and physiology are involved in some way. Part of the intrigue (and frankly the fun) of this subject is exploring the tension between these constructionist and essentialist conceptions.Gender and sexuality seem to be an obvious pair, related if not conjoined at a very fundamental level. Yet, they are not the same. It would be possible to teach a course on sexuality in antiquity and never really discuss gender, e.g., never ?leave the bedroom? and, e.g., investigate women?s status and gender roles in the broader society, in aspects having nothing to do with sexual acts (however one defines them) per se. It would also be possible to teach a course on gender in antiquity without really addressing sex, e.g., to examine gender roles, status, and constructions and never talk about sexual acts. So this course will actually have to steer some sort of course between gender and sexuality in which it will not be possible to touch upon every aspect of either phenomenon. It is also possible to teach a course like this from any number of ideological frameworks: feminist, religious, queer theory, etc. I myself tend to be very un-ideological and won?t be teaching this course from any conscious framework or perspective other than one of historical and intellectual curiosity. If you yourself possess a specific intellectual or ideological point of view and wish to approach the course material from it, that?s fine. I would simply ask that you respect history, and not require the Greeks and Romans to think in ways they either did not or could not, and entertain the notion that human nature and behavior is too complex and contradictory to be completely consistent with any ideological pattern.RESEARCH PAPERAs stated on the syllabus, each student is required to submit research paper of no less than 12 pages (including foot- or end-notes but not including bibliography)? Submission of a one-page prospectus of the paper and a bibliography by 4:00, Tuesday, November 26th. Again, this may be submitted anytime earlier if you like. The prospectus is a description of what you think the paper will look like, either in narrative or outline form. What I am looking for here is evidence that you have given thought to your topic and how you will approach it. You are not bound by your prospectus; if the paper works out differently, that?s fine. I just want you to start thinking seriously. Similarly, I want you to start looking around for sources for your paper. In the bibliography, which follows your prospectus on a separate sheet, give me a sense that you have started seriously looking. Minimally, your bibliography must list at least 2 ancient sources plus at least 4 modern books and 4 modern articles (either in electronic or paper form) pertinent to your topic.? A very useful resource you will find a link to in the list on the Classics website is TOCS-IN Database of Articles in Classics ( This is a keyword searchable index of journal articles in Classics. The database will give the citations of articles but usually not provide adirect link; once you have the info for what looks like a useful article, you then have to access the article either via the e-journals function on the UK Library website, or go to the library for the hard copy. Note: the titles of the journals in TOCS-IN are all abbreviated, but at the bottom of every page there is a link to the journal abbreviations list which will give you the full name of the journal.? The paper itself should make use of both ancient sources and scholarly materialgive me clear ideas and writing, articulate organization, and analysis and discussion of the sources. Submission of the completed paper at the end of term, which will constitute 30% of your final grade.You may used any approved style sheet (MLA, APA, Turabian, etc.) you wish for this paper, just make sure you use it consistently.!

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