One of My Friend’s Life

Topic: One of My Friend?s LifeRead about the different theoretical perspectives in developmental psychology andevaluate one that you think makes mostsense. Explain using an example from yourown or a friend?s life as to why you think this perspective is reasonable.The article is in the attachment.Please read them and finish the paper.It would be great if you would read the following three articlesand print a copy to bring to class on Tues Sept 4Young Brains Lack Skills for SharingAn underdeveloped prefrontal cortex makes sharing difficult for young childrenByRuth WilliamsFrom Scientific American Mind, July 11, 2015If a child you know refuses to share his toys, chances are he knows he is doing wrong butcannot help it. New researchpublished in March inNeuronrevealsthatunderdevelopment of an impulse control center in the brain is, at least in part, thereason children who fullyunderstand the concept of fairness fail to act accordingly. As babies, we are inherently selfish, but as we grow, we becomebetter at social strategy ?that is, satisfying our own needs while behaving in a manner acceptable toothers.NikolausSteinbeis of the Max Planck Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciencesin Leipzig, Germany, wondered howthis skill develops.Steinbeis and his team examined kids aged six to 14 performing two similar decision-making tasks thatinvolved sharing poker chips with an anonymous recipient (the chips were redeemable for prizes). In task one, the size of achild?s offering carried noconsequences, but in the second task, the anonymous youngster could reject the offer, if he or sheconsidered it unfair, and both children would get nothing. Task two thusrequired social strategy; task one did not.In taskone, older and younger children behaved similarly. But in task two, youngerchildren both made worse offers and were morewilling to accept bad offers even thoughthey understood that these offers were unfair. Imaging the kids? brains while theyperformed the tasks revealed less activity in the younger kids? impulse-control regions intheir prefrontal cortex, the seatof decision making and self-control in the brain. Inaddition, independent of age, less activity in this region paralleledless social strategy.So if a kid has trouble playing fair, it is probably not because he does not understand theconcept.Rather he simply cannot resist the urge to grab all the cookies and run.Steinbeis points out, however, that this finding doesnot excuse bad behavior. ?Just because the brain is that way doesn?t mean it can?t be changed,? he says. ?Educationandsetting a good example can have an enormous impact.?Consistency and Development of Prosocial Dispositions:Author:Nancy Eisenberg;Ivanna K Guthrie;Bridget C Murphy;StephanieAShepard;AmandaCumberland;All authorsPublication:Child Development, Nov. ? Dec., 1999, vol. 70, no. 6, p. 1360-1372Summary:The issue of whether there is consistency in prosocial dispositions was examinedwith a ? data set extending from ages 4 to 5years into early adulthood (N = 32).Spontaneous prosocial behaviors observed in the preschool classroompredictedactualprosocial behavior, other- and self-reported prosocial behavior, self-reportedsympathy, and perspective takingin childhood to early adulthood. Prosocialbehaviors that were not expected to reflect an other-orientation (i. e., lowcosthelping and compliant prosocial behavior) generally did not predict later prosocialbehavior or sympathy. Sympathyappeared to partially mediate the relation of early spontaneous sharing to later prosocial dispositions. The results supporttheview that there are stable individual differences in prosocial responding that havetheir origins in early childhood.Affect and Attention: Infants Observed with Mothersand PeersAuthor:Lauren B Adamson;RogerBakemanPublication:Child Development, Jun., 1985, vol. 56, no. 3, p. 582-593Summary:This study documents the rate, mean duration, and mode of infants? affectivedisplays. ? Infants were observed in their homesfrom 6 to 18 months playing withtheir mothers, with peers, and alone. Affect rates were higher with mothersthanpeers. Withincreasing age, affect rates as well as the vocal mode increased, whilemean durations and facial and motoric modes decreased.Affect was most likelywhen infants were engaged with mothers or peers in person play. It also occurredoften when infantsfirst became engaged with the same object their partner wasmanipulating; with mothers (but not peers) affect continued to beexpressedthroughout these periods of shared object play. Rates were elevated whenmothers moved objects repetitively.Discuss (check for the help you need)ion focuses on how infants? earlier-developing affective communication skills may continue to be used as they begintoexplore the world of objects and on how adults may support this integration of expressive and referential communicationCategory: Editing

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