STUDY GUIDE 9 1.Describe general characteristics of fossils categorized as Archaic homo sapiens, their temporal and geographic range. Exclude Neandertals. Discuss some of the problems associated with the understanding of this fossil taxon. (a) Increased cranial capacity (b) Appear more similar to modern humans (c) Reduced face, less prognathic, greater frontal lobe (d) Thick cranial bones, no chin Archaic fossils have been found in Europe, Africa and Asia. Problems arise because there is very little fossil record and they are too young to date with pot/argon and too old to date with radiocarbon. 2.Over time neandertals have been considered both extremely primitive and nearly modern. Discuss morphological characteristics that distinguish them from both Homo Erectus and anatomically modern sapiens. What does post-cranial morphology indicate about their life histories and life ways in general? MORPHOLOGICAL DIFFERENCES: 1. Larger brains than modern humans 2. Shape of the skulls differed, football shaped 3. Flat front 4. Bulge in the back of the skull 5. No chin 6. Large face and prognathic POST CRANIAL MORPHOLOGY: 1 very robust 2. Heavily muscled 3. Barrel shaped rib cage 4. Very strong hands They appear to be built to endure very cold conditions, they lived during descent into a full glacial period. They needed to be able to conserve heat in a very strenuous environment. 3.Fossil evidence indicates that neadertals were extinct by 25,000 years ago. Identify features of their skeletal morphology, mortality profiles and apparent life ways that might explain their disappearance from the fossil record. Neadertals were very robust, short limbs, barreled rib cage and strong hands that required high levels of calories to survive. They lived very short lives and they exhibited bone fractures and cranial injuries. Bone fractures consistent with rodeo cowboys, suggests that they were taking larg…
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