Prompt 1 In order to apply one?s knowledge of tests and measurements, one has to first understand the basic concepts involved in defining and summarizing the numbers. The topics of variables, measurement scales, variability, and distributions are commonly discussed in relation to defining and interpreting test scores. Discussion Question 1 1) Discuss the four different scales of measurement and what types of information they convey. 2) Provide examples of what types of tests or assessments would use each scale. 3) Discuss what is measures of central tendency and measures of variability 4) What is their use and purpose in understanding test scores in tests and measurements. 5) How are the mean, median, mode, and standard deviation related to the various frequency distributions (i.e., positively skewed, negatively skewed, and symmetrical/normal curve)? 6) What does the frequency distribution of scores say about the suitability of a test?Prompt 2 Tests can be categorized into two groups: criterion referenced evaluations and norm referenced evaluations. Discussion Question 2 1) Compare and contrast criterion and norm referenced tests. 2) How would criterion and norm referenced test interpretations be similar? Different? 3) As part of this discussion, please conduct a search online and provide an example of a criterion referenced test and a norm referenced test. 4) Explain the meaning of and differences between age norms, grade norms, and standard scores with respect to raw scores and distributions. 5) Why might a test use standard scores over age or grade based norms? Provide a thorough review of the strengths and weaknesses/limitations to each.American Educational Research Association. (1999). Standards for educational and psychological testing. Washington: DC, Author.Huck, S. W. (2012). Reading statistics and research (6th ed.).Columbus, OH: Allyn & Bacon.Thorndike, R. M. & Thorndike-Christ, T. M. (2009). Measurement and evaluation in psychology and education (8th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. ISBN: 0132403978.Butcher, J. N., Cabiya, J., Lucio, E., & Garrido, M. (2007). The challenge of assessing clients with different cultural and language backgrounds. In J. N. Butcher, J. Cabiya, E. Lucio, E., & M. Garrido (Ed) Assessing Hispanic clients using the MMPI-2 and MMPI-A (pp. 3-23). Washington, DC, US: American Psychological Association. Doi: 10.1037/11585-001.Forbush, K. T., Wildes, J. E., Pollack, L. O., Dunbar, D., Luo, J., Patterson, K., & ? Watson, D. (2013). Development and validation of the Eating Pathology Symptoms Inventory (EPSI). Psychological Assessment, 25(3), 859-878. doi:10.1037/a0032639.Helms, J. E. (2006). Fairness is not validity or cultural bias in racial-group assessment: A quantitative perspective. American Psychologist, 61(8), 845-859. Doi: 10.1037/0003-066X.61.8.845.O?Neill, P., & Sevastos, P. (2013). The development and validation of a new multidimensional Job Insecurity Measure (JIM): An inductive methodology. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 18(3), 338-349. doi:10.1037/a0033114.Turner, S. M., DeMers, S. T, Fox, H. R. & Reed, G. (2001). APA?s guidelines for test user qualifications: An executive summary. American Psychologist, 56(12), 1099-1113. Doi: 10.1037/0003-066X.56.12.1099.Van de Vijver, F. J. R & Phalet, K. (2004). Assessment in multicultural groups: The role of acculturation. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 53(2), 215-236. Doi: 10.1111/j.1464-0597.2004.00169.x.:
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