The Founding and the ConstitutionGovernmentwrite an essay, 750-1000 words in length, on a topic selected from the list below. The assignment is to be formatted according to the American Psychological Association (APA) style. Papers not formatted properly will lose points.Students should use Courier or New Courier 12 point as the paper?s font, double space the text, and create one inch margins on all four sides of the page.1. As the authors explain in Chapter 2, The Founding and the Constitution, the Constitution can be changed by formal, as well as informal, means. Complete the following assignment:?Describe the formal amendment process, as put forth in Article V of the Constitution and explain why the founders chose those rules for formally amending the Constitution. ?Provide an explanation of the informal process of amending the Constitution. ?Define loose construction and strict construction methods of constitutional interpretation, and describe how each perspective aligns with formal versus informal methods of change. ?Explain whether you favor a method of loose construction or strict construction of the Constitution. Identify what you view as the benefits of your perspective.2. In Chapter 3, Federalism, the authors discuss how the U.S. Constitution creates a dual system of government whereby the powers are distributed between a national government and state governments. This arrangement has seen its share of challenges and changes. Complete the following assignment:?Provide a brief description of the distribution of powers within the federal system, including an understanding of enumerated powers, reserved powers, and concurrent powers. ?Discuss the major eras in American history as they relate to federalism, and describe which level of government appeared to be dominant at each time. ?Describe what you believe is a proper distribution of powers between the national and state governments.3. In Chapter 6, Congress, the authors state, the bulk of work on legislation consists of what members do in committees. Include the following:?Provide a thorough understanding of the committee system in Congress. ?Explain the various types of committees that have been developed. ?Describe the leadership and partisan nature of the committee system. ?Discuss the work that lawmakers perform in committees, and explain the role of committees in the lawmaking process. ?Explain why Congress established committees.4. Even though the President, as discussed in Chapter 7, has very few constitutionally enumerated powers, the duties of the President have become quite substantial. Include the following:?Describe the express powers and responsibilities of the President, as provided for in Article II of the Constitution. ?Explain the roles and functions of the President, including head of state, head of government, chief diplomat, commander in chief, and chief legislator. ?Discuss the implied and inherent powers (and roles) of the President.5. After reading Chapter 4, Civil Liberties, in its entirety, focus specifically on the discussion of the Bill of Rights: Origins and Evolution. The Bill of Rights was written to secure our civil liberties with respect to the actions of the national government. With passage of the Fourteenth Amendment?s Due Process Clause, and subsequent judicial interpretation of its language, many of the protections in the Bill of Rights have been extended to protect individuals from state action (a process referred to as incorporation). Thus, just as the national government may not deprive us of our liberties without due process, the Fourteenth Amendment provides us with the same due process protection of our liberties from state government action. For over a century, and on a case-by-case, right-by-right, basis, the Court has been incorporating rights from the Bill of Rights into the Due Process Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment. Include the following:?Provide an understanding of the origins of the Bill of Rights. ?Explain the Court?s original ruling of nationalization of the Bill of Rights, as expressed in Barron v. Baltimore (1833). ?Define incorporation theory. ?Describe the Court?s implementation of incorporation (nationalization) of the Bill of Rights. ?Provide your perspective on incorporation; do you believe the Court has made the rights decision by interpreting the Due Process Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment to limit state action with regard to individual liberties that are expressed in the Bill of Rights?6. In Chapter 5, Civil Rights, Equality and Social Movements, the authors define civil rights as, those positive rights, whether political, social, or economic, conferred by the government on individuals or groups. As such, they are rights that are conferred upon us based on legislative action (i.e., the right to marry, the right to vote, the right to drive, etc.). The Fourteenth Amendment?s Equal Protection Clause requires each state to not deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws. Thus, there is some restriction on a state when it provides civil rights, to do so in an equal manner. After reading Chapter 5 in its entirety, focus specifically on the discussion regarding, The Women?s Movement and Gender Equality. Include the following:?Provide an understanding of the Court?s initial opinion as to whether the Fourteenth Amendment?s Equal Protection Clause required states to apply the law equally, without regard to gender. Use Muller v. Oregon (1908), Goesaert v. Cleary (1948), and Hoyt v. Florida (1961). ?Beginning with Reed v. Reed (1971), explain the shift in the Court?s opinion with regard to the Fourteenth Amendment?s application to laws that discriminated based on gender. ?Understanding the difference between the formal amendment process and the informal amendment process, explain how the Court?s decisions relating to gender equality, beginning in the 1970?s, may have achieved results similar to the goals of the Equal Rights Amendment. ?Explain whether you believe that passage of the Equal Rights Amendment would have provided additional, or different, protection from laws that discriminate based on gender.7. After reading Chapter 10, Public Opinion, study the material related to political socialization (in the section, How Does Public Opinion Form?). Complete the following assignment:?Explain political socialization and agents of political socialization. ?Describe your personal political socialization. Briefly discuss your current political values, beliefs, and opinions, and explain how (through political socialization) you have acquired these opinions. ?Discuss which/how social agents played a role in your political socialization and, as a result, how your current political opinions have become informed.8. In Chapter 11, Interest Groups, the authors discuss, Iron Triangles, Issue Networks, and the Influence of Groups. Complete the following assignment:?Define the iron triangle of policy making. ?Explain what constitutes the three groups involved in the iron triangle, and describe the role of each group. ?Identify a policy issue, other than one explained in the chapter, and list the groups that would fall within the iron triangle for that policy issue. ?Explain whether you believe the close working relationship between the three groups is beneficial or damaging to the policy making process.9. In Chapter 13, Political Parties and Voting, the authors discuss the expansion of voting rights in the United States, in the section, Toward Universal Suffrage. If we understand voting rights as the result of states? determining eligibility requirements and registration procedures, then expansion of suffrage (the right to vote) must be understood in terms of changes in el:
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