Water safety

Water safetyThis assignment is in the form of a written report on the situation of water supply in the UAE and the country?s efforts for provision of safe drinking water. In 1955, three Arab countries suffered from water scarcity. Today, that number has risen to 11 with another seven anticipated to join the list by 2025. Despite its diversity of landscapes and climates, most Middle East countries cannot sustainably meet current water demand. By 2050, per capita water availability will fall by half with serious consequences for the region?s already stressed aquifers and natural hydrological systems. Water sources vary from country to country. Some, like Egypt and Iraq rely mostly on surface water from large international rivers. Others, like Yemen, Djibouti and the Arab States of the Gulf Cooperation Council countries depend almost entirely on groundwater and desalination, while others use a mixture of surface and groundwater. With a rising population placing increased demand on a finite resource, the Middle East region should actively seek effective water management strategies, as well as address the resulting industrial and urban pollution. The case in the UAE regarding water availability is very critical. The climate is arid with very high summer temperatures, and mean annual rainfall is about 100 mm. This leads to high water evaporation rate (2-3m/year), and low groundwater recharge rate. On the other hand, the drastic increase in population size following the increase in wealth generated by oil revenues puts a severe demand on the water resources for drinking and or agricultural purposes. To increase the groundwater recharge, a number of dams have been built at various locations across the country. There are about 140 dams and embankments of various dimensions. Because of the rapid increase in domestic and industrial water demand, desalination plants were installed along the coastline all over the UAE. At present, there are more than 35 desalination plants, with a total capacity of l,922 m3/day or 700 million m3/year. Desalination plants provide 100% of the drinking water, but only about 20% of all water used in the UAE. ? For this assignment you are expected to use the course material, individually researched material, as well as materials and references posted on the VLE and e-library. ? The report should be organized into: introduction; main body (with appropriate headings and subheadings); conclusion and recommendations for the appropriate water resources management; references (APA style). The reference list is not included in the word count. ? You are expected to touch down on the following topics: ? the importance of safe water to health and well-being; and the diseases/conditions associated with unsafe drinking water; ? guidelines for safe drinking water; ? water resources in the UAE and pressures and threats for these resources; ? sources of water pollution in the UAE; ? impacts of climate change on water resources (quality and quantity); ? water management strategies in the UAE needed for sustainable provision of water in spite of increasing demands:

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